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Review Article
Atul Munshi, Sujal Munshi

Iron Deficiency Anemia in Pregnancy: Can We eradicate?

[Year:2017] [Month:April-June] [Volumn:1 ] [Number:2] [Pages:39] [Pages No:36-39][No of Hits : 3102]


ABSTRACT

Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is the most common type of anemia. Most of the anemic patients, especially women, suffer from mild to severe deficiency of iron. Almost 50% of all pregnant women experience IDA during their pregnancies, and at least 1 out of 5 of girls and women may experience it during their reproductive years. One complete eradication of IDA is not feasible but a try can help us on a long way. Only supplementation is not the answer. Going to the root cause, finding out current situation and managing accordingly by available resources is the correct answer.

Keywords: Anemia, Eradication, Iron deficiency, Pregnancy.

How to cite this article: Munshi A, Munshi S. Iron Deficiency Anemia in Pregnancy: Can We eradicate? World J Anemia 2017;1(2):36-39.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


 
Review Article
Pramya Nanjundan

Comparison of Various Treatment Modalities of Iron Deficiency Anemia in Pregnancy

[Year:2017] [Month:January-March] [Volumn:1 ] [Number:1] [Pages:29] [Pages No:23-26][No of Hits : 2367]


ABSTRACT

More than a quarter of the world’s population is anemic, with about one half of the burden from iron deficiency. Iron deficiency anemia occurs when iron deficiency is severe enough to diminish erythropoiesis and cause the development of anemia. The prevention and treatment of iron deficiency is a major public health goal especially in women, children, and individuals from low-income countries.

Keywords: Chelated iron, Ferrous iron salts, Oral iron supplementation, Parenteral iron.

How to cite this article: Nanjundan P. Comparison of Various Treatment Modalities of Iron Deficiency Anemia in Pregnancy. World J Anemia 2017;1(1):23-26.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


 
Review Article
Vimee Bindra

Anemia in Adolescence

[Year:2017] [Month:January-March] [Volumn:1 ] [Number:1] [Pages:29] [Pages No:18-19][No of Hits : 2126]


ABSTRACT

Adolescent anemia is a global health problem. Prevalence of anemia in girls in India is estimated to be around 56%. Various risk groups are prone to anemia and it leads to long-term consequences. Government has launched national programs to fight adolescent anemia by identifying high-risk groups, supplementing with iron and folic acid tablets and raising awareness about the nutritional anemia.

Keywords: Adolescence, Anemia, Iron deficiency.

How to cite this article: Bindra V. Anemia in Adolescence. World J Anemia 2017;1(1):18-19.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


 
Review Article
Richa Saxena, Tania Banerjee, Rohit B Aniyery

Thalassemia and its Management during Pregnancy

[Year:2017] [Month:January-March] [Volumn:1 ] [Number:1] [Pages:29] [Pages No:5-17][No of Hits : 1373]


ABSTRACT

Thalassemia, also known as Mediterranean anemia, can be considered as the most common monogenetic disease prevailing all across the world. This disorder involves production of abnormal amounts of hemoglobin in the body, which poses a significant burden on the health and economic status of the patients as well as their families. Generally, patients with the thalassemia trait have a normal life expectancy, but individuals with beta thalassemia major mostly die from cardiac complications due to iron overload by the time they reach 30 years of age. Each year, nearly 70,000 babies are born with thalassemia worldwide. Conventional treatment procedures available (e.g., lifelong red blood cell transfusion, iron chelation therapy, and splenectomy) have levied high expenses on the health-care systems.
Thalassemia during pregnancy could be associated with significant complications to the mother as well as her fetus. Therefore, universal antenatal screening for thalassemia carriers should be implemented in populations having a high prevalence of this condition. In order to improve survival among children born with thalassemia, there is a requirement for combined treatment and prevention program during pregnancy. Preconception genetic counseling is strongly advised for all patients with thalassemia. Among the high-risk parents, the most important method for diagnosis of thalassemia is invasive prenatal diagnosis. Following a standard management plan and close monitoring of the maternal and fetal condition during pregnancy helps in considerably reducing the mortality and morbidity associated with this condition.
Novel treatment approaches are recently being developed to correct the resulting α/β globin chain imbalance, in an effort to move beyond the palliative management of this disease and tackle the exact genetic defect involved in its pathogenesis. Three methods for medical treatment of thalassemia have been envisioned: fetal globin gene renaissance by pharmacological compounds being injected into patients, allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, and gene therapy. These medical strategies can be considered as the best options prevailing now and are currently under research and clinical studies.

Keywords: α-thalassemia, β-thalassemia, Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, Gene therapy, Iron chelation, Pregnancy management, Splenectomy, Thalassemia

How to cite this article: Saxena R, Banerjee T, Aniyery RB. Thalassemia and its Management during Pregnancy. World J Anemia 2017;1(1):5-17.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


 
Quiz

Quiz on Anemia in Pregnancy

[Year:2017] [Month:April-June] [Volumn:1 ] [Number:2] [Pages:39] [Pages No:68][No of Hits : 1269]


ABSTRACT

Q1.   What is the World Health Organization recommendation in pregnancy for iron and folic acid for developing countries?


 
Quiz

Quiz Questions on Anemia

[Year:2017] [Month:April-June] [Volumn:1 ] [Number:2] [Pages:39] [Pages No:69-70][No of Hits : 1139]


ABSTRACT

Anemia, the commonest blood disorder still poorly understood, is prevalent from newborn, to adolescents, in pregnancy, and till menopause! A small quiz may give some answers.


 
Review Article
Rajalakshmy Prasanth

Prevalence of Anemia in both Developing and Developed Countries around the World

[Year:2017] [Month:April-June] [Volumn:1 ] [Number:2] [Pages:39] [Pages No:40-43][No of Hits : 1045]


ABSTRACT

Anemia is a major nutritional problem worldwide and is mainly caused due to iron deficiency. Though it is global in occurrence, it is more of a concern in the developing countries where it is always associated with the socioeconomic status of the people. Anemia is very high (ranging between 80 and >90%) in preschool children, adolescent girls, and pregnant and lactating women. There are about 1.2 billion adolescents in the world, which is equal to one-fifth of the world’s population and their numbers are increasing. This study deals with the prevalence of anemia in the different nations of the world.

Keywords: Complication, Iron deficiency anemia, Prevalence.

How to cite this article: Prasanth R. Prevalence of Anemia in both Developing and Developed Countries around the World. World J Anemia 2017;1(2):40-43.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


 
Review Article
Neeti Swarup, Shreya Gupta, Chandrani Sagolsem, Zoya Chowdhary, Subhash Gupta, Nidhi Sinha

Atrophic Glossitis: Burning Agony of Nutritional Deficiency Anemia.

[Year:2017] [Month:April-June] [Volumn:1 ] [Number:2] [Pages:39] [Pages No:48-50][No of Hits : 1045]


ABSTRACT

Lingual atrophic condition is the loss of ordinary texture and appearance of the dorsal tongue, determined by papillary protrusion, which turns into a soft and smooth aspect. Atrophic glossitis (AG) is a lingual atrophic condition, characterized by loss of fungiform or filiform papilla from the dorsum of tongue. This is generally associated with pain, glossodynia, and burning sensation, glossopyrosis. It is associated with a variety of conditions, local and systemic. Atrophic glossitis is considered to be an important indicator for nutritional deficiency anemias. The study aims at a brief review of AG and its relation to nutritional deficiency anemia.

Keywords: Atrophic glossitis, Epithelial atrophy, Nutritional deficiency anemia.

How to cite this article: Swarup N, Gupta S, Sagolsem C, Chowdhary Z, Gupta S, Sinha N. Atrophic Glossitis: Burning Agony of Nutritional Deficiency Anemia. World J Anemia 2017;1(2):48-50.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


 
Original Article
Rufina Binoy, Neema Acharya

Impact of Anemia on Menstruation and Academic Performance of Adolescent Girls attending Secondary Schools of Rural Wardha District

[Year:2017] [Month:January-March] [Volumn:1 ] [Number:1] [Pages:29] [Pages No:1-4][No of Hits : 776]


ABSTRACT

Introduction: In this research, we hope to understand the effect of anemia on the various menstrual parameters and disorders and on the academic performance of adolescent girls attending secondary schools of rural Wardha.

Materials and methods: Questionnaires were prepared and distributed to the female students who came to attend the adolescent clinic in Acharya Vinoba Bhave Rural Hospital, Sawangi, India, for health checkup. Their hemoglobin was estimated and recorded in their respective questionnaires. Questionnaires were designed to understand in the best way possible the effects of anemia on the menstrual health and academic life of the adolescent girls.

Results: The results revealed a remarkable correlation between the grades of anemia and poor menstrual health; a similar result was seen in case of academic performance as well. It also threw light on the prevalence of anemia, which was recorded as 80% in this study, though most students had only mild grade anemia.

Conclusion: The results of the study revealed that there was a significant relation between anemia and the menstrual parameters and academic performance of the adolescent girls. This study could prove helpful for future researches which aim to provide better quality of life for adolescent girls in terms of general and menstrual health.

Keywords: Academics, Adolescent, Anemia, Menstruation, Rural.

How to cite this article: Binoy R, Acharya N. Impact of Anemia on Menstruation and Academic Performance of Adolescent Girls attending Secondary Schools of Rural Wardha District. World J Anemia 2017;1(1):1-4.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


 
Review Article
Shreya Gupta, Subhash Gupta, Neeti Swarup, Harita Sairam, Nidhi Sinha, Suresh S Nair

Orofacial Manifestations associated with Anemia

[Year:2017] [Month:April-June] [Volumn:1 ] [Number:2] [Pages:39] [Pages No:44-47][No of Hits : 653]


ABSTRACT

Oral cavity is the window to the body and is often the area where systemic disease first presents itself. The various tissues including lips, tongue, gingiva, mucosal surfaces, dentition, and bone are involved in the presentation of disease state. The most frequently affected is the periodontium, followed by the oral mucous membrane and the periapical inflammations. The review is not all inclusive; however, it does address some of the most common, as well as a few of the more rare anemia-associated disease states observed in both adults and children.

Keywords: Cheilosis, Congenital hypoplastic anemia, Depapillation, Fanconi anemia, Glossitis, Megaloblastic anemia, Oral lesions, Vitamin B12.

How to cite this article: Gupta S, Gupta S, Swarup N, Sairam H, Sinha N, Nair SS. Orofacial Manifestations associated with Anemia. World J Anemia 2017;1(2):44-47.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


 
Review Article
KS Kavitha Gautham

Intravenous Iron Sucrose

[Year:2017] [Month:January-March] [Volumn:1 ] [Number:1] [Pages:29] [Pages No:20-22][No of Hits : 596]


ABSTRACT

Iron deficiency is a major worldwide health problem. There is recent evidence that anemia is the last manifestation of the syndrome. Advances in outlining the physiology of iron deficiency have been made; gaps remain in the current understanding. While oral iron supplement remains the mainstay, some indications for intravenous (IV) administration have developed. In this review, we will highlight the indications and prerequisites of IV iron therapy, dosage, safety, and method of administration.

Keywords: Dose calculation, Intravenous iron preparations, Iron sucrose, Intravenous iron therapy.

How to cite this article: Gautham KSK. Intravenous Iron Sucrose. World J Anemia 2017;1(1):20-22.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


 
Review Article
Richa Saxena, Arun Bhatia, Kanav Midha, Mampi Debnath, Prabhjot Kaur

Malaria: A Cause of Anemia and Its Effect on Pregnancy

[Year:2017] [Month:April-June] [Volumn:1 ] [Number:2] [Pages:39] [Pages No:51-62][No of Hits : 574]


ABSTRACT

Malaria is one of the major health problems in the world. It remains an important cause of very high human morbidity and mortality, especially, among children and pregnant women. It results from the infection of parasites belonging to the genus Plasmodium. Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax are the major pathogens responsible for causing human malaria. Approximately 75% of cases are caused by P. falciparum and associated with the mortality rate of approximately 0.5 to 1.0%. Both P. falciparum and P. vivax induce anemia during their erythrocytic stages of infection. Most of the malarial infections are related to some degree of anemia, the severity of which depends upon patient-specific characteristics (e.g., age, innate and acquired resistance, comorbid features, etc.) as well as parasite-specific characteristics (e.g., species, adhesive, and drug-resistant phenotype, etc.). Malarial anemia encompasses reduced production of erythrocytes as well as increased removal of circulating erythrocytes in the bone marrow. Susceptibility to severe malarial anemia is associated with the polymorphisms of the cytokines, which are likely to function by perturbing erythropoiesis. This article reviews the epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical features, treatment, and various complications occurring due to malarial anemia. The second part of this article also focuses on the effect of malaria during pregnancy. Some significant effects of malaria during pregnancy include spontaneous abortion, preterm delivery, low birthweight, stillbirth, congenital infection, and maternal death.

Keywords: Anemia, Black water anemia, Bone marrow, Cytokine, Dyserythropoiesis, Erythropoiesis, Hemolysis, Malaria, Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax.

How to cite this article: Saxena R, Bhatia A, Midha K, Debnath M, Kaur P. Malaria: A Cause of Anemia and Its Effect on Pregnancy. World J Anemia. 2017;1(2):51-62.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


 
Original Article
Shubhada Neel, Narendra Malhotra, EV Swaminathan, Pandharinath B Neel, Joseph Lazar, EV Gireesh,Pushpa Pande, BK Pradnya Pawar, Jaideep Malhotra

Study of Integrated Approach of Antenatal Care to improve the Gestational Age at Birth

[Year:2018] [Month:January-March] [Volumn:2 ] [Number:1] [Pages:40] [Pages No:1-10][No of Hits : 23]


ABSTRACT

Aim and objective: Study of integrated approach of antenatal care (ANC) to improve the gestational age (GA) at birth.

Materials and methods: A total of 532 women attending the antenatal clinic at Neel clinic in Panvel, Navi Mumbai, India, were enrolled between 18 and 28 weeks of pregnancy from April 2015 to March 2017, in prospective nonrandomized, matched, interventional study.
A total of 254 women were enrolled in the study group; 278 women were enrolled in the control group. Women were matched for age, gravida, parity, educational, religion, and residential area.

Integrated approach of ANC:
• Stress management through Rajyoga meditation (Brahma Kumaris).
• Nutritious and satwik food.
• Antenatal physical and breathing exercises.
Exercises, walking, and meditation were practiced by the study group from date of entry into the study until delivery. The control group walked 1/ an hour twice a day (standard obstetric advice) during the study period. Compliance in both groups was ensured by frequent telephone calls and maintenance of a daily activity charts.

Result: Preterm labor was significantly lower (<0.02) in the study group.

Conclusion: Stress management through meditation and nutritional management may contribute to decreased risk of premature delivery or low birth weight (LBW) babies, and eventually would decrease problems in the infant, children, adolescent, and fetal origin of adult diseases. Exercise during pregnancy would reduce the risk of cesarean delivery.
Integrated approach of ANC is safe, relatively cheap to implement, and would reduce the costs of long-term health care.

Keywords: Antenatal care, Antenatal exercise, Birth outcome, Integrated approach, Low birth weight, Preterm labor, Rajyoga meditation.

How to cite this article: Neel S, Malhotra N, Swaminathan EV, Neel PB, Lazar J, Gireesh EV, Pande P, Pawar BKP, Malhotra J. Study of Integrated Approach of Antenatal Care to improve the Gestational Age at Birth. World J Anemia 2018;2(1): 1-10.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


 
Review Article
Richa Saxena, Kanav Midha

Blood Transfusion Practices in Obstetrics

[Year:2018] [Month:January-March] [Volumn:2 ] [Number:1] [Pages:40] [Pages No:16-20][No of Hits : 13]


ABSTRACT

Transfusion of blood and blood components is a common practice in obstetric wards but it is not without risk. The incidence of transfusion reactions varies from 4 in every 100 transfusions for nonhemolytic reactions to 1 in every 40,000 for hemolytic transfusion reactions. Appropriate and rational use of blood/ components is essential for ensuring availability for the needy as well as preventing risks of transfusion-transmitted diseases and saving resources. Rational use means providing the right blood or products, in the right quantity, to the right patient and at the right time, bridging demand, and supply gap. The safety, adequacy, and effectiveness can only be achieved if unnecessary transfusions can be prevented. This article discusses the physiological basis of transfusion as well as the blood components involved.

Keywords: Blood transfusion, Fresh frozen plasma, Obstetrics, Platelet transfusion.

How to cite this article: Saxena R, Midha K. Blood Transfusion Practices in Obstetrics. World J Anemia 2018;2(1):16-20.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


 
Review Article
Richa Saxena, Sudha Chamoli, Monisha Batra

Clinical Evaluation of Different Types of Anemia

[Year:2018] [Month:January-March] [Volumn:2 ] [Number:1] [Pages:40] [Pages No:26-30][No of Hits : 13]


ABSTRACT

Anemia, defined as a hemoglobin level two standard deviations below the mean for age, is prevalent among infants and children as well as adults worldwide. The evaluation of an individual with anemia should begin with a thorough history and risk assessment. Characterizing the anemia as microcytic, normocytic, or macrocytic based on the mean corpuscular volume (MCV) will aid in the work-up and management. Microcytic anemia due to iron deficiency is the most common type of anemia in children. Iron deficiency anemia, which can be associated with cognitive issues, is prevented and treated with iron supplements or increased intake of dietary iron. This review article discusses the clinical evaluation of different types of anemias based on the findings of clinical examination (i.e., pallor, pedal edema, nail changes, and epithelial changes) as well as the results of various investigations such as routine blood investigations (hemoglobin, mean cell hemoglobin concentration [MCHC], packed cell volume, etc.), peripheral smear examination, bone marrow examination, etc. Management options for various types of anemia are different and have been briefly discussed in this article.

Keywords: Anemia, Hemoglobin, Iron deficiency, Mean cell hemoglobin concentration, Megaloblastic, Pallor.

How to cite this article: Saxena R, Chamoli S, Batra M. Clinical Evaluation of Different Types of Anemia. World J Anemia 2018;2(1):26-30.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


 
Case Report
Ruchika Garg, Rachna Agrawal, Saroj Singh, Mohita Agrawal

Ischiopagus Conjoined Twins delivered Vaginally

[Year:2018] [Month:January-March] [Volumn:2 ] [Number:1] [Pages:40] [Pages No:31-33][No of Hits : 12]


ABSTRACT

Conjoint twins (CTs) are a very rare entity since it occurs only once in 50,000 to 2 lakh births. Female:male CTs are 3:1. Conjoint twins are monozygotic twins. In this sense, they share the same zygote where the twinning is initiated after 12 days of fertilization of egg. It may be due to genetic or environmental factors; 40% of CTs are stillborn and an additional one-third die within 24 hours of birth. We report an undiagnosed case of ischiopagus-tetrapus CTs delivered vaginally, with difficulty needing bilateral episiotomy. The bodies of two fetuses were fused laterally from mid-abdomen to pelvis along with single umbilical cord. There were two heads, four separate limbs, with fusion at pelvic region, and partially fused male external genitalia. The CTs were cyanosed and stillborn. Postnatal period was uneventful.

Keywords: Conjoint twins, Episiotomy, Ischiopagus.

How to cite this article: Garg R, Agrawal R, Singh S, Agrawal M. Ischiopagus Conjoined Twins delivered Vaginally. World J Anemia 2018;2(1):31-33.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


 
Case Report
Kriti Agarwal, Krishna Dahiya

Antepartum Eclampsia and Partial HELLP Syndrome in a Patient with Bell's Palsy

[Year:2018] [Month:January-March] [Volumn:2 ] [Number:1] [Pages:40] [Pages No:34-35][No of Hits : 12]


ABSTRACT

Bell’s palsy affects pregnant women three times more often than nonpregnant women, with majority of cases occurring in the third trimester (71%) and early postpartum period (21%). Bell’s palsy during pregnancy has been associated with preeclampsia, with 22% of these women developing preeclampsia. A 26-year-old G3P1L1A1 presented at 33 weeks period of gestation with chief complaint of progressive bilateral pedal edema since a week, blood pressure (BP) 150/100 mm Hg, dipstick urine 3+. Labetalol 100 mg 12 hourly was commenced for control of BP. Laboratory screening of HELLP (hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelet count) syndrome was normal. Six days later she had an episode of generalized tonic-clonic convulsion, magnesium sulfate was given and emergency laboratory investigations revealed partial HELLP syndrome [platelet 80,000, serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT)/serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT) 281/222 U/L] with normal coagulation profile. Lower segment cesarean section was done under general anesthesia with delivery of a 2 kg baby with Apgar score of 7/10 and 9/10 at 1 and 5 minutes respectively. Postoperative day 3, all laboratory reports including magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) brain were normal. Blood pressure was stabilized and she was discharged on third postnatal day, with some right-sided residual facial weakness. All obstetricians must be aware of association of Bell’s palsy with hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and aggressive screen for the same as soon as diagnosed, in order to prevent complications like eclampsia and HELLP. Since Bell’s palsy is not associated with adverse perinatal outcomes, it should not prompt obstetricians for unnecessary preterm inductions.

Keywords: Antepartum eclampsia, Bell’s palsy, Partial HELLP.

How to cite this article: Agarwal K, Dahiya K. Antepartum Eclampsia and Partial HELLP Syndrome in a Patient with Bell’s Palsy. World J Anemia 2018;2(1):34-35.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


 
Case Report
Manjeet Kaur, Beant Singh, Balwinder Kaur, Santosh Kumari

A Rare Case of Morbidly Adherent Placenta in a Young Primipara managed Conservatively

[Year:2018] [Month:January-March] [Volumn:2 ] [Number:1] [Pages:40] [Pages No:36-38][No of Hits : 11]


ABSTRACT

Placenta accreta syndrome is any placental implantation with abnormally firm adherence to myometrium because of partial or complete absence of decidua basalis and imperfect development of fibrinoid and Nitabuch’s layers. We report a case of densely adherent placenta in a 21-year-old primipara without any other risk factor. She was referred from CHC Barnala following preterm vaginal delivery at 36 weeks 3 days with two failed attempts of manual removal of the placenta (MROP) where only a few bits of placenta could be removed. The ultrasonography (USG) confirmed retained adherent placenta with increased vascularity on color Doppler. Patient was managed conservatively with 50 mg inj methotrexate intramuscularly, single dose given followed by placental expulsion 10 days later. Repeat USG confirmed normal empty uterus. Patient was discharged in satisfactory condition.

Keywords: Manual removal of the placenta, Methotrexate, Piecemeal, Placenta accreta.

How to cite this article: Kaur M, Singh B, Kaur B, Kumari S. A Rare Case of Morbidly Adherent Placenta in a Young Primipara managed Conservatively. World J Anemia 2018;2(1):36-38.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


 
Case Report
Nisha Bhatia, Krishna Kumari Meka

Vitamin B12 deficiency, a cause of Bicytopenia complicating Pregnancy

[Year:2018] [Month:January-March] [Volumn:2 ] [Number:1] [Pages:40] [Pages No:39-40][No of Hits : 11]


ABSTRACT

Introduction: Bicytopenia in pregnancy is a rare entity that poses as a diagnostic challenge. It may present as a combination of anemia, leukopenia or thrombocytopenia. Though bone marrow failure is the commonest cause, nutritional deficiencies need to be ruled out. We report a case of Bicytopenia in pregnancy due to Vitamin B12 deficiency.

Case report: A 22 year old primigravida with 29 weeks of gestation presented with severe anemia. On evaluation her haemoglobin was 5.1gm/dl and blood picture showed a mixed population of normocytes, hypochromic red blood cells with macrocytes; normal neutrophil count with hypersegmented neutrophils and diminished platelets. Iron studies were normal and her serum Vitamin B12 levels were low. She was given blood transfusions to improve her hemoglobin. Post transfusion, she set into spontaneous labor and delivered a dead female baby of wt 1kg. Treatment with injectable cya-nocobalamin followed by oral multivitamin led to a sustained improvement in the haematological parameters.

Discussion: This case demonstrates that B12 deficiency could be a rare cause of bicytopenia in pregnancy. Failure to diagnose and treat could lead to fatal maternal and fetal complications. Early diagnosis of B12 deficiency and supplementation is warranted.

Keywords: Bicytopenia, Complications in pregnancy, Severe anemia, Vitamin B12 deficiency.

How to cite this article: Bhatia N, Meka KK. Vitamin B12 Deficiency, a Cause of Bicytopenia complicating Pregnancy. World J Anemia 2018;2(1):39-40.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


 
Review Article
Ruchika Garg, Prabhat Agrawal, Neharika Malhotra, Narendra Malhotra

Thalassemia: An Indian Perspective.

[Year:2018] [Month:January-March] [Volumn:2 ] [Number:1] [Pages:40] [Pages No:11-15][No of Hits : 11]


ABSTRACT

Thalassemia is a congenital and hereditary disease and comprises a “group” of hematological phenotypes. The most common form of thalassemia is due to a defective beta gene. India has a huge burden of many patients with a p-thalassemia syndrome and sickle cell disease, but few among them are optimally managed, and allogeneic stem cell transplant is unaffordable for the majority of families. Thalassemia was considered by Caffey to be the best example of skeletal dwarfism and infantilism caused by chronic anemia. Transfusion therapy, which is the mainstay of treatment, allows for normal growth and development and suppresses ineffective erythropoiesis. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is the only available treatment with the high cost and scarcity of human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-matched, related donors. Prevention and control of beta-thalassemia disease require the accurate diagnosis of carriers and proper genetic counseling. Prenatal diagnosis can be performed in the first or second trimester of pregnancy by deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) analysis using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Since there are 17 mutations as well as rare ones causing beta-thalassemia in Asian Indians, the point mutation detection by reverse dot blot (RDB) allele-specific oligonucleotide hybridization for common mutations along with amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS) techniques has been developed for prenatal diagnosis. The author has tried to explain all the important facts regarding thalassemia in an Indian perspective in this article to help the readers.

Keywords: Hemoglobin, Prenatal diagnosis, Thalassemia, Transfusion Therapy.

How to cite this article: Garg R, Agrawal P, Malhotra N, Malhotra N. Thalassemia: An Indian Perspective. World J Anemia 2018;2(1):11-15.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


 
Review Article
Richa Saxena, Priyanka Diwan

Immune Hemolytic Disease of the Newborn

[Year:2018] [Month:January-March] [Volumn:2 ] [Number:1] [Pages:40] [Pages No:21-25][No of Hits : 10]


ABSTRACT

Hemolytic anemia caused by blood group incompatibility is an important cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality. Hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn (HDFN), which is also termed as alloimmune HDFN or erythroblastosis fetalis, occurs due to destruction of red blood cells (RBCs) of the fetus or neonate by maternal immunoglobulin G antibodies. Under the conditions of anemia, the fetal bone marrow initiates production of immature erythroblasts into the fetal peripheral circulation, resulting in various manifestations of erythroblastosis fetalis, including conditions, such as hydrops fetalis, icterus gravis neonatorum, and congenital anemia of the newborn. Different approaches are being employed for the treatment of fetal anemia, such as intrauterine blood transfusion and exchange transfusion that takes place after birth. Recently, use of intravenous immuno-globulin (IVIg) has also been considered for the management of jaundice in newborns associated with hemolytic diseases.

Keywords: Exchange transfusion, Hemolytic disease of newborn, Intrauterine blood transfusion, Intravenous immu-noglobulin, Jaundice in newborn, Rh isoimmunization.

How to cite this article: Saxena R, Diwan P. Immune Hemolytic Disease of the Newborn. World J Anemia 2018;2(1):21-25.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


 
Review Article
Amitha Indersen

Fetal Intrauterine Transfusion

[Year:2017] [Month:January-March] [Volumn:1 ] [Number:1] [Pages:29] [Pages No:27-29][No of Hits : 477]


ABSTRACT

Fetal anemia is a recognizable and treatable condition. It requires identification of the etiology to plan a comprehensive treatment strategy. Fetal blood transfusions help tide over crisis and avert fetal cardiovascular decompensation or deterioration due to the anemia. Based on the cause and the fetal condition, the timing and requirement for transfusion are determined. At present, noninvasive monitoring with fetal middle cerebral arterial Doppler peak systolic velocity is the standard for monitoring and diagnosis of fetal anemia.

Keywords: Anemia, Fetal, Intrauterine, Middle cerebral arterial peak systolic velocity, Transfusion.

How to cite this article: Indersen A. Fetal Intrauterine Transfusion. World J Anemia 2017;1(1):27-29.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


 
Case Report
Kanika Chopra

A Rare Case of Chronic Abruption-oligohydramnios Sequence at 16 Weeks Pregnancy with Compensated Severe Anemia

[Year:2017] [Month:April-June] [Volumn:1 ] [Number:2] [Pages:39] [Pages No:65-67][No of Hits : 411]


ABSTRACT

Aim: The aim of this article is to report a rare case of chronic abruption-oligohydramnios sequence (CAOS).

Background: Abruptio placentae is usually an acute event needing emergent measures for management, but may present with varied clinical features.

Case report: We describe a rare case of a 20-year-old primigravida at 16 weeks of gestation who presented with complaints of mild pain abdomen off and on for 1 month and minimal bleeding per vaginum for a day. Her vital signs were stable, but there was marked pallor. Obstetric examination revealed uterus corresponding to 20 to 22 weeks of gestation with raised basal tone. Ultrasound findings showed a dead fetus corresponding to 16 weeks of gestation with a large retroplacental collection of 12.5 × 7 cm. The patient was given three units of blood transfusion after which the patient went into spontaneous labor and delivered uneventfully 23 hours after admission.

Conclusion: Recognition of chronic abruption and prompt intervention in our case led to a favorable maternal outcome.

Clinical significance: The diagnosis of chronic abruption should be kept in mind in patients presenting with pain abdomen even in early pregnancy.

Keywords: Chronic abruption, Chronic abruption-oligohydramnios sequence, Oligohydramnios, Second trimester, Severe anemia.

How to cite this article: Chopra K. A Rare Case of Chronic Abruption-oligohydramnios Sequence at 16 Weeks Pregnancy with Compensated Severe Anemia. World J Anemia 2017;1(2):65-67.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


 
Research Article
Shaheen Anjum, Nidhi Garg, Sri Beriwal, Anjum Parvez

High-dose Accelerated vs Low-dose Frequent Regime of Iron Sucrose Therapy in Antenatal and Postnatal Women with Iron Deficiency

[Year:2017] [Month:April-June] [Volumn:1 ] [Number:2] [Pages:39] [Pages No:31-35][No of Hits : 385]


ABSTRACT

Objective: To compare an accelerated high-dose (500 mg) vs low-dose (200 mg) regimen of intravenous iron sucrose in a cohort of iron-deficient anemic antenatal patients in terms of efficacy, safety, and compliance.

Materials and methods: In a prospective hospital-based study, antenatal and postnatal women with anemia attending Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College and Hospital, Aligarh, India, between December 2010 and December 2012 were enrolled. The inclusion criteria were all outpatient and admitted anemic antenatal women ≤ 36 weeks gestation and postnatal women with hemoglobin (Hb) below 10 gm/dL, or serum ferritin ≤ 30 μg/L or transferrin saturation ≤ 40% irrespective of prior oral iron therapy. Patients were excluded from the study if they were hemodynamically unstable, actively bleeding, having fever, or were nauseated or vomiting. Participants were assigned to control and study groups according to simple random sampling. Intravenous iron sucrose group I (500 mg)/group II (200 mg) was infused after test dose on alternate days for the calculated total dose in the study population. Blood and iron indices were measured at baseline and after 2 weeks of administration of last dose. The primary outcome of the study was to assess the rise in Hb and safety of high-dose intravenous iron sucrose.

Results: There was a statistically significant increase in Hb level in patients receiving either regimen, with larger mean increase in group I (2.7 ± 0.4) compared with group II (2.25 ± 6.39). Serum iron and serum ferritin also increased in both fortnightly (p < 0.001). Blood transfusion was avoided by 90.1% in severely anemic cases with Hb < 7. Hospital stay was reduced by 50% in group I.

Conclusion: The accelerated regimen of high-dose (500 mg) intravenous iron sucrose in anemic antenatal patients appears to be safe and effective in correcting anemia, restoring iron stores, and avoiding blood transfusion.

Keywords: Anemia, Iron deficiency, Iron sucrose.

How to cite this article: Anjum S, Garg N, Beriwal S, Parvez A. High-dose Accelerated vs Low-dose Frequent Regime of Iron Sucrose Therapy in Antenatal and Postnatal Women with Iron Deficiency. World J Anemia 2017;1(2):31-35.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


 
Case Report
Sourya Acharya, Samarth Shukla, Ajinkya Jamthe, Ankita Tamhane

Sickle Cell Anemia with Megaloblastic Crisis: Deficiency or Demand?

[Year:2017] [Month:April-June] [Volumn:1 ] [Number:2] [Pages:39] [Pages No:63-64][No of Hits : 380]


ABSTRACT

Megaloblastic erythropoiesis has been associated with hemolytic anemias. Sickle cell disease (SCD) presenting as megaloblastosis is a rare phenomenon. We present a case of sickle cell anemia presenting with painful crisis along with megaloblastic blood picture.

Keywords: Anemia, Erythropoiesis, Megaloblastosis, Sickle cell disease.

How to cite this article: Acharya S, Shukla S, Jamthe A, Tamhane A. Sickle Cell Anemia with Megaloblastic Crisis: Deficiency or Demand? World J Anemia 2017;1(2):63-64.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


 
Editorial
Sourya Acharya, Narendra Malhotra

Anemia: Old Disease, New Solutions!

[Year:2017] [Month:April-June] [Volumn:1 ] [Number:2] [Pages:39] [Pages No:vi-vii][No of Hits : 319]


ABSTRACT

Anemia how old? Lo! It was one gift from the Pandora’s box. As true as the devil, it is there since the genesis of life as a symbiotic friend of nature. As a part of female physiology it opened its saga from iron deficiency and evolved with us since time immemorial with its many forms and features.


 
Editorial 1
MB Agarwal

Editorial 1

[Year:2017] [Month:January-March] [Volumn:1 ] [Number:1] [Pages:29] [Pages No:vi-vii][No of Hits : 181]


ABSTRACT

Anemia is a condition in which there is a deficiency of red cells or hemoglobin in the blood, resulting in pallor and weakness. According to the World Health Organization report, anemia affects 1.62 billion people, which corresponds to 24.8% of the world population. The highest prevalence is in preschool-age children and the lowest prevalence is amongst men. However, the population group with the greatest number of individuals affected is non-pregnant women.


 
Editorial 2
Narendra Malhotra, Seema Pandey, Jaideep Malhotra

Why Anemia Journal?

[Year:2017] [Month:January-March] [Volumn:1 ] [Number:1] [Pages:29] [Pages No:viii-ix][No of Hits : 162]


ABSTRACT

Investment in nutrition is crucial to future efforts to improve the health of women, children, and adolescents; the potential human, societal, and economic gains from such investment are substantial.



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