Current Issue Volume 1, Number 2 , April-June 2017

EDITORIAL
Sourya Acharya, Narendra Malhotra

Anemia: Old Disease, New Solutions!

[Year:2017] [Month:April-June] [Volumn:1 ] [Number:2] [Pages:39] [Pages No:vi-vii]



Anemia how old? Lo! It was one gift from the Pandora’s box. As true as the devil, it is there since the genesis of life as a symbiotic friend of nature. As a part of female physiology it opened its saga from iron deficiency and evolved with us since time immemorial with its many forms and features.


RESEARCH ARTICLE
Shaheen Anjum, Nidhi Garg, Sri Beriwal, Anjum Parvez

High-dose Accelerated vs Low-dose Frequent Regime of Iron Sucrose Therapy in Antenatal and Postnatal Women with Iron Deficiency

[Year:2017] [Month:April-June] [Volumn:1 ] [Number:2] [Pages:39] [Pages No:31-35]



Objective: To compare an accelerated high-dose (500 mg) vs low-dose (200 mg) regimen of intravenous iron sucrose in a cohort of iron-deficient anemic antenatal patients in terms of efficacy, safety, and compliance.

Materials and methods: In a prospective hospital-based study, antenatal and postnatal women with anemia attending Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College and Hospital, Aligarh, India, between December 2010 and December 2012 were enrolled. The inclusion criteria were all outpatient and admitted anemic antenatal women ≤ 36 weeks gestation and postnatal women with hemoglobin (Hb) below 10 gm/dL, or serum ferritin ≤ 30 μg/L or transferrin saturation ≤ 40% irrespective of prior oral iron therapy. Patients were excluded from the study if they were hemodynamically unstable, actively bleeding, having fever, or were nauseated or vomiting. Participants were assigned to control and study groups according to simple random sampling. Intravenous iron sucrose group I (500 mg)/group II (200 mg) was infused after test dose on alternate days for the calculated total dose in the study population. Blood and iron indices were measured at baseline and after 2 weeks of administration of last dose. The primary outcome of the study was to assess the rise in Hb and safety of high-dose intravenous iron sucrose.

Results: There was a statistically significant increase in Hb level in patients receiving either regimen, with larger mean increase in group I (2.7 ± 0.4) compared with group II (2.25 ± 6.39). Serum iron and serum ferritin also increased in both fortnightly (p < 0.001). Blood transfusion was avoided by 90.1% in severely anemic cases with Hb < 7. Hospital stay was reduced by 50% in group I.

Conclusion: The accelerated regimen of high-dose (500 mg) intravenous iron sucrose in anemic antenatal patients appears to be safe and effective in correcting anemia, restoring iron stores, and avoiding blood transfusion.

Keywords: Anemia, Iron deficiency, Iron sucrose.

How to cite this article: Anjum S, Garg N, Beriwal S, Parvez A. High-dose Accelerated vs Low-dose Frequent Regime of Iron Sucrose Therapy in Antenatal and Postnatal Women with Iron Deficiency. World J Anemia 2017;1(2):31-35.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


REVIEW ARTICLE
Atul Munshi, Sujal Munshi

Iron Deficiency Anemia in Pregnancy: Can We eradicate?

[Year:2017] [Month:April-June] [Volumn:1 ] [Number:2] [Pages:39] [Pages No:36-39]



Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is the most common type of anemia. Most of the anemic patients, especially women, suffer from mild to severe deficiency of iron. Almost 50% of all pregnant women experience IDA during their pregnancies, and at least 1 out of 5 of girls and women may experience it during their reproductive years. One complete eradication of IDA is not feasible but a try can help us on a long way. Only supplementation is not the answer. Going to the root cause, finding out current situation and managing accordingly by available resources is the correct answer.

Keywords: Anemia, Eradication, Iron deficiency, Pregnancy.

How to cite this article: Munshi A, Munshi S. Iron Deficiency Anemia in Pregnancy: Can We eradicate? World J Anemia 2017;1(2):36-39.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


REVIEW ARTICLE
Rajalakshmy Prasanth

Prevalence of Anemia in both Developing and Developed Countries around the World

[Year:2017] [Month:April-June] [Volumn:1 ] [Number:2] [Pages:39] [Pages No:40-43]



Anemia is a major nutritional problem worldwide and is mainly caused due to iron deficiency. Though it is global in occurrence, it is more of a concern in the developing countries where it is always associated with the socioeconomic status of the people. Anemia is very high (ranging between 80 and >90%) in preschool children, adolescent girls, and pregnant and lactating women. There are about 1.2 billion adolescents in the world, which is equal to one-fifth of the world’s population and their numbers are increasing. This study deals with the prevalence of anemia in the different nations of the world.

Keywords: Complication, Iron deficiency anemia, Prevalence.

How to cite this article: Prasanth R. Prevalence of Anemia in both Developing and Developed Countries around the World. World J Anemia 2017;1(2):40-43.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


REVIEW ARTICLE
Shreya Gupta, Subhash Gupta, Neeti Swarup, Harita Sairam, Nidhi Sinha, Suresh S Nair

Orofacial Manifestations associated with Anemia

[Year:2017] [Month:April-June] [Volumn:1 ] [Number:2] [Pages:39] [Pages No:44-47]



Oral cavity is the window to the body and is often the area where systemic disease first presents itself. The various tissues including lips, tongue, gingiva, mucosal surfaces, dentition, and bone are involved in the presentation of disease state. The most frequently affected is the periodontium, followed by the oral mucous membrane and the periapical inflammations. The review is not all inclusive; however, it does address some of the most common, as well as a few of the more rare anemia-associated disease states observed in both adults and children.

Keywords: Cheilosis, Congenital hypoplastic anemia, Depapillation, Fanconi anemia, Glossitis, Megaloblastic anemia, Oral lesions, Vitamin B12.

How to cite this article: Gupta S, Gupta S, Swarup N, Sairam H, Sinha N, Nair SS. Orofacial Manifestations associated with Anemia. World J Anemia 2017;1(2):44-47.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


REVIEW ARTICLE
Neeti Swarup, Shreya Gupta, Chandrani Sagolsem, Zoya Chowdhary, Subhash Gupta, Nidhi Sinha

Atrophic Glossitis: Burning Agony of Nutritional Deficiency Anemia.

[Year:2017] [Month:April-June] [Volumn:1 ] [Number:2] [Pages:39] [Pages No:48-50]



Lingual atrophic condition is the loss of ordinary texture and appearance of the dorsal tongue, determined by papillary protrusion, which turns into a soft and smooth aspect. Atrophic glossitis (AG) is a lingual atrophic condition, characterized by loss of fungiform or filiform papilla from the dorsum of tongue. This is generally associated with pain, glossodynia, and burning sensation, glossopyrosis. It is associated with a variety of conditions, local and systemic. Atrophic glossitis is considered to be an important indicator for nutritional deficiency anemias. The study aims at a brief review of AG and its relation to nutritional deficiency anemia.

Keywords: Atrophic glossitis, Epithelial atrophy, Nutritional deficiency anemia.

How to cite this article: Swarup N, Gupta S, Sagolsem C, Chowdhary Z, Gupta S, Sinha N. Atrophic Glossitis: Burning Agony of Nutritional Deficiency Anemia. World J Anemia 2017;1(2):48-50.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


REVIEW ARTICLE
Richa Saxena, Arun Bhatia, Kanav Midha, Mampi Debnath, Prabhjot Kaur

Malaria: A Cause of Anemia and Its Effect on Pregnancy

[Year:2017] [Month:April-June] [Volumn:1 ] [Number:2] [Pages:39] [Pages No:51-62]



Malaria is one of the major health problems in the world. It remains an important cause of very high human morbidity and mortality, especially, among children and pregnant women. It results from the infection of parasites belonging to the genus Plasmodium. Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax are the major pathogens responsible for causing human malaria. Approximately 75% of cases are caused by P. falciparum and associated with the mortality rate of approximately 0.5 to 1.0%. Both P. falciparum and P. vivax induce anemia during their erythrocytic stages of infection. Most of the malarial infections are related to some degree of anemia, the severity of which depends upon patient-specific characteristics (e.g., age, innate and acquired resistance, comorbid features, etc.) as well as parasite-specific characteristics (e.g., species, adhesive, and drug-resistant phenotype, etc.). Malarial anemia encompasses reduced production of erythrocytes as well as increased removal of circulating erythrocytes in the bone marrow. Susceptibility to severe malarial anemia is associated with the polymorphisms of the cytokines, which are likely to function by perturbing erythropoiesis. This article reviews the epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical features, treatment, and various complications occurring due to malarial anemia. The second part of this article also focuses on the effect of malaria during pregnancy. Some significant effects of malaria during pregnancy include spontaneous abortion, preterm delivery, low birthweight, stillbirth, congenital infection, and maternal death.

Keywords: Anemia, Black water anemia, Bone marrow, Cytokine, Dyserythropoiesis, Erythropoiesis, Hemolysis, Malaria, Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax.

How to cite this article: Saxena R, Bhatia A, Midha K, Debnath M, Kaur P. Malaria: A Cause of Anemia and Its Effect on Pregnancy. World J Anemia. 2017;1(2):51-62.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


CASE REPORT
Sourya Acharya, Samarth Shukla, Ajinkya Jamthe, Ankita Tamhane

Sickle Cell Anemia with Megaloblastic Crisis: Deficiency or Demand?

[Year:2017] [Month:April-June] [Volumn:1 ] [Number:2] [Pages:39] [Pages No:63-64]



Megaloblastic erythropoiesis has been associated with hemolytic anemias. Sickle cell disease (SCD) presenting as megaloblastosis is a rare phenomenon. We present a case of sickle cell anemia presenting with painful crisis along with megaloblastic blood picture.

Keywords: Anemia, Erythropoiesis, Megaloblastosis, Sickle cell disease.

How to cite this article: Acharya S, Shukla S, Jamthe A, Tamhane A. Sickle Cell Anemia with Megaloblastic Crisis: Deficiency or Demand? World J Anemia 2017;1(2):63-64.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


CASE REPORT
Kanika Chopra

A Rare Case of Chronic Abruption-oligohydramnios Sequence at 16 Weeks Pregnancy with Compensated Severe Anemia

[Year:2017] [Month:April-June] [Volumn:1 ] [Number:2] [Pages:39] [Pages No:65-67]



Aim: The aim of this article is to report a rare case of chronic abruption-oligohydramnios sequence (CAOS).

Background: Abruptio placentae is usually an acute event needing emergent measures for management, but may present with varied clinical features.

Case report: We describe a rare case of a 20-year-old primigravida at 16 weeks of gestation who presented with complaints of mild pain abdomen off and on for 1 month and minimal bleeding per vaginum for a day. Her vital signs were stable, but there was marked pallor. Obstetric examination revealed uterus corresponding to 20 to 22 weeks of gestation with raised basal tone. Ultrasound findings showed a dead fetus corresponding to 16 weeks of gestation with a large retroplacental collection of 12.5 × 7 cm. The patient was given three units of blood transfusion after which the patient went into spontaneous labor and delivered uneventfully 23 hours after admission.

Conclusion: Recognition of chronic abruption and prompt intervention in our case led to a favorable maternal outcome.

Clinical significance: The diagnosis of chronic abruption should be kept in mind in patients presenting with pain abdomen even in early pregnancy.

Keywords: Chronic abruption, Chronic abruption-oligohydramnios sequence, Oligohydramnios, Second trimester, Severe anemia.

How to cite this article: Chopra K. A Rare Case of Chronic Abruption-oligohydramnios Sequence at 16 Weeks Pregnancy with Compensated Severe Anemia. World J Anemia 2017;1(2):65-67.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


QUIZ

Quiz on Anemia in Pregnancy

[Year:2017] [Month:April-June] [Volumn:1 ] [Number:2] [Pages:39] [Pages No:68]



Q1.   What is the World Health Organization recommendation in pregnancy for iron and folic acid for developing countries?


QUIZ

Quiz Questions on Anemia

[Year:2017] [Month:April-June] [Volumn:1 ] [Number:2] [Pages:39] [Pages No:69-70]



Anemia, the commonest blood disorder still poorly understood, is prevalent from newborn, to adolescents, in pregnancy, and till menopause! A small quiz may give some answers.


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